Aluminosilicate Zeolite-A Reaction Matrices for Ni:H and Co:H Exothermic Processes:

The Zeocat Reactor Concept

N.A. Reiter and Dr. S.P. Faile

18 September 2012


Aluminosilicate zeolite lattices have been used widely for geometric sequestering and isolation of metallic species, primarily for catalytic purposes.  The family of Zeolite-A forms commonly used as molecular sieve media is especially useful for engineered containment of Ni, Pd, Ag, Au, Cu, Co, Mn, and Fe atoms.  We considered that in light of recent developments in Ni:H exothermic reaction technology, where Ni and other transition metals are exposed to hydrogen in a nano-structured form, zeolite constrained atomic or ionic species might exhibit vigorous reactions similarly.

In this document, we outline and disclose our observations to date, related to novel exothermic reactions by zeolite constrained species, both in a pressurized environment of H2 gas blends as well as a physical proximity to a decomposing metal hydride performing the role of a hydrogen generator.

Technical discussion is provided, as well as experimental details for replication efforts.


In late 2011, we observed and confirmed that 3A, 4A, 5A, and 13X zeolite molecular sieve beads were capable of adsorbing / exchanging, and holding ionic species of Ni, Ag, Au, Pd, Pt, Co, Cu, Pb, Fe, and Mn.  Furthermore, we found that when exposed to a reducing gas mixture – either H2 or N2:H2 5% at temperatures above 350C, several of these species were reduced to atomic form.  Ni, Pd, Ag, Cu, and Co in particular were quite reliable in this process.  Our general procedure for loading zeolite beads consisted of the following steps:

  1.  An aqueous solution of the metal salt was prepared, generally 1M or greater in concentration.  Chlorides, acetates, or citrates were used, depending on the metal.
  2. A quantity of the selected zeolite molecular sieve beads (purchased in bulk commercially) were desiccated at between 200C and 250C for one hour, cooled, and weighed.
  3. The beads were poured into a container of the aqueous metal salt solution, and allowed to soak with occasional stirring for between 24 and 96 hours at room temperature.
    Following soaking, the beads are drained, rinsed, dried, and re-desiccated at 200C.  We then re-weigh them.
From multiple trials, we determined that at least for Ni, Pd, and Co, the absolute amount of ionic metal adsorbed by 10 grams of beads was usually between 300 and 700 milligrams.  Experimentally, it was also determined that 3A mol sieve beads (Zeolite A – K) were most robust against fracturing and spalling, either during soak or desiccation phases.

Some metal species appear to have an ionic radius that is either too large for the 3 angstrom “holes” of the zeolite, or otherwise react in such a way with some component of either the zeolite OR the attapulgite clay binder of the beads, and do not infiltrate very far into the bulk structure of the individual bead.  Cu and Pb were notorious for only infiltrating a fraction of a millimeter into the bead bulk.  Ni and Co are good infiltrators, and generally are adsorbed to a maximum extent possible within 48 hours.

The following photos illustrate the appearance of selected loaded bead species and conditions:

Incorporation of Loaded Zeolites in a Novel Reactor Geometry:

Advocates of Ni:H and Pd:D systems of LENR (Low Energy Nuclear Reactions) have become rightfully focused on nano-geometry and topology of reaction surfaces, particularly since early 2011.  Speculation abounds regarding preferential geometry and dimensions, as well as catalysts in Ni powder systems.  However, in principle, 1-dimensional arrays of metal ions or atoms in a zeolite cage represent the ultimate venue of atomic scale access of H or D.  How best to utilize Ni (or other metal) loaded zeolites in a simple reactor form, in order to search for signs of exothermic properties that would be suggestive of non-chemical origins?

In order to test loaded zeolites in the presence of H2, we built a very simple “screening” reactor.  The body of the reactor is a commercial 316 stainless steel ½”NPT “Tee” fitting, with a single thermocouple extending into the interior, a gas inlet fitting, and a bleed and purge valve.  Loading of the vessel is conducted through the bleed valve pipe fitting.  The assembly is placed on a hot plate with simple rheostat control, and covered with kaowool ceramic fiber insulation.  All “hot zone” components are made of 316

stainless, as is the .0625” diameter sheath of the K-type thermocouple used to take the internal “fuel” temperature.

See the photos below: